Effect of EM on Fungal Infections in the Soil

I stumbled across this paper recently as a client was asking about the effect of EM on Fusarium and I thought it would be relevant to a lot of our growers. This trial published in the Polish Journal of Natural Sciences in 2008 looked at the Effect of fungal infection and the application of the biological agent EM on the rate of photosynthesis and transpiration in pea (pisum sativum l.) leaves.

Field experiments conducted during the years 2003-2005 showed that the rate of photosynthesis and transpiration decreased as a result of pea infection by Peronospora viciae which set up the trial to see what the effect of different treatsments would be. The results showed that:

1. The tested biological agent (EM) reduced the incidence of pea diseases.

2. Foliar application of EM significantly increased the rate of photosynthesis in pea.

3. Soil application of EM, seed dressing and chemical control decreased the rate of photosynthesis in pea.

4. Seed dressing with the tested biological agent (EM) and chemical control caused a significant decrease in molar transpiration values in pea.

5. The occurrence of downy mildew of peas significantly reduced the rate of photosynthesis.

6. The occurrence of downy mildew and ascochytosis of peas decreased the rate of molar transpiration.

Tables

Bron: https://www.emnz.com/article/effect-of-em-on-fungal-infections-in-the-soil

World’s Largest Study on the Human Gut Reveals Connection to These Mental Health Problems

The largest study of all time on the human gut has been underway since 2012 and they are discovering some remarkable things.

Scientists have been collecting fecal samples from around the world and tirelessly analyzing and comparing samples. Believe it or not, people have been paying $99 each to send their own stool samples along with oral and skin samples of bacteria to the research scientists. They also answer questions including those about their diet and lifestyle.

Three PhDs, Rob Knight, Jeff Leach, and Jack Gilbert founded the American Gut Project in 2012 on a quest to discover more about the human microbiome, more commonly referred to as ‘the gut’.

The microbiome is essentially a diverse world of different kinds of bacteria that live within our digestive system. These bacteria, some beneficial, some villainous, form a microscopic world of activity that can either fight disease, or give it the perfect atmosphere to thrive.

Many health problems have been linked to certain types of bacteria that live in our microbiome that are either foreign invaders or simply types that overgrow their beneficial bacterial counterpart and ruin the natural healthy balance.

So Far the American Gut Project Has Made the Following Discoveries

Firstly, they have noted that people who eat a wider variety of plants have a wider variety of bacteria in their microbiome. They haven’t necessarily stated that it’s better to have a more complex microbiome but they have noted that those people eating extra plants have less antibiotic resistance, which is noteworthy for sure.

This lack of antibiotic resistance could simply have to do with the subjects who favor a wide variety of plants eating fewer packaged and processed foods that contain animals raised with antibiotics.

The scientists have also discovered that people who have similar bacterial profiles tend to suffer from the same health problems. This was determined by matching subjects to controls with the same age, gender, and body mass index that did not suffer from the ailment.

Gut Bacteria and Mental Health

Some of the health problems that were found to have subjects in common with similar bacterial profiles were mental health problems, take PTSD for instance. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), schizophrenia, depression, or bipolar disorder have stood out in the study thus far as having a very strong link to gut bacteria diversity.

In other words, subjects who suffer from PTSD tend to have the same bacteria in their digestive tract. The same goes for depression and bipolar disorder.

When you consider how many mental and physical health symptoms are linked to nutritional deficiencies and also how vital a role our gut plays in absorbing and utilizing nutrients, this all starts to make a lot of sense.

Medical News Today puts it very well:

The results demonstrated that people who reported mental health issues had more bacteria in common with other people who reported similar problems than they did with the controls.

This association was strong regardless of gender, age, or geographical location. Also, the research suggests that some types of bacteria may be more prevalent in people who live with depression.

The MNT article also points out that a certain recent study found a connection between anxiety and a lack of healthy gut microbes. Another study discovered that certain bacteria are altered in people who suffer from PTSD.

“We observed a much greater microbial diversity than previous smaller studies found, and that suggests that if we look at more populations, we’ll see more diversity, which is important for defining the boundaries of the human microbiome,” said Daniel McDonald, PhD, the scientific director of the American Gut Project at UC San Diego School of Medicine.

The ultimate goal of the project is to map the human microbiome. Essentially it is to be able to tell people, ‘Alright, you’re suffering from this ailment, well here’s what is missing or different about your gut bacteria and here’s what you need to eat (or not eat) in order to fix it.’

Dr. Rob Knight said, “The human microbiome is complex, but the more samples we get, the sooner we will be able to unravel the many ways the microbiome is associated with various health and disease states.”

Bron: https://realfarmacy.com/worlds-largest-study-on-the-human-gut-reveals-connection-to-these-mental-health-problems/

Links between gut microbes and depression strengthened

The once-wild idea that intestinal bacteria influence mental health has transformed into a major research pursuit.

Just ten years ago, the idea that microorganisms in the human gut could influence the brain was often dismissed as wild. Not any more.

Links between the central nervous system and the trillions of bacteria in the gut — the microbiota — are now a major focus of research, public interest and press coverage. But how does this ‘gut–brain axis’ work? The mechanisms by which microorganisms shape aspects of brain functioning such as memory and social behaviour, and how they might contribute to conditions such as depression and neurodegenerative disease, are tenuous and often controversial.

Much of what we know so far is based on studies showing correlations between specific gut bacteria, their metabolites and neurological symptoms. But these correlations do not prove cause and effect. Many studies use animal models, which don’t accurately mirror human traits or behaviours. Human studies have been limited: they’re usually based on relatively small numbers of people, and might not control for a wealth of confounding factors — such as unusual diets, antibiotics or antidepressants — that can affect the microbiota.

A study published this week in Nature Microbiology tackles some of these issues (M. Valles-Colomer et al. Nature Microbiol. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41564-018-0337-x; 2019). The authors used DNA sequencing to analyse microbiota in the faeces of more than 1,000 people enrolled in Belgium’s Flemish Gut Flora Project. The team then correlated different microbial taxa with the participants’ quality of life and incidence of depression, using self-reported and physician-supplied diagnoses. The researchers validated the findings in an independent cohort of 1,063 individuals in the Netherlands’ LifeLines DEEP project. Finally, they mined the data to generate a catalogue describing the microbiota’s capacity to produce or degrade molecules that can interact with the human nervous system.

The researchers found that two groups of bacteria, Coprococcus and Dialister, were reduced in people with depression. And they saw a positive correlation between quality of life and the potential ability of the gut microbiome to synthesize a breakdown product of the neurotransmitter dopamine, called 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. The results are some of the strongest yet to show that a person’s microbiota can influence their mental health.

These are still correlations, not causes. Researchers know that the gut microbiota can produce or stimulate the production of neurotransmitters and neuroactive compounds, such as serotonin, GABA and dopamine, and that these compounds can modulate bacterial growth. The challenge now is to find out whether, and how, these microbe-derived molecules can interact with the human central nervous system, and whether that alters a person’s behaviour or risk of disease. At least now, answering these questions is a wise pursuit, not a wild one.

Nature 566, 7 (2019)

Bron: https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-00483-5

Workshop Bokashi maken voor de tuin

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Roeach organiseert twee informatieve workshops over Bokashi met de Bokashi-keukenemmer.

Bokashi is het Japanse woord voor “goed gefermenteerd organisch materiaal”. Het is een manier om je organische resten om te zetten tot een zeer rijke bodemverbeteraar. Bokashi is het resultaat van een eeuwenoude techniek: fermentatie. Janet Pasveer van Roeach legt uit: “Tine en ik werken al enige tijd met Bokashi. In onze perma-tuin voeden we de bodem met Bokashi. Je doet groenteafval in een Bokashi-emmer, voegt effectieve micro-organismen in de vorm van Bokashi-starter toe en drukt het allemaal goed aan. Door het verwerken van je resten zonder zuurstof, maak je van je eigen organische resten een waardevolle bodemverbeteraar. De firma Agriton is al 25 jaar, wereldwijd, bezig met dit mooie product. Simone Vos van EM Agriton Natuurlijk Actief komt, samen met ons, op twee avonden uitleg geven over deze manier om je groenteresten te verwerken tot voeding voor de bodem”. De kosten zijn € 5,- p.p. De avonden zijn op:

  • dinsdagavond 26 februari in Leeuwarden (hier is nog plek)
  • woensdagavond 6 maart in Joure (is al bijna volgeboekt)

Wil je komen? Meld je dan vóór 24 februari aan:
Voor Leeuwarden: Tine@roeach.com
Voor Joure: Janet@roeach.com

Voor meer info kijk ook op Roeach.

Bron: https://www.emnatuurlijkactief.nl/workshop-bokashi-maken-voor-de-tuin/

A gut punch fights cancer and infection

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Microorganisms in the human gut can affect immune-system cells. Gut bacterial strains have been discovered that boost immune cells that have cell-killing capacity and that can target cancer and protect against infection.

The bacteria that live in our bodies have a pivotal role in the maintenance of our health, and can influence a range of conditions, such as obesity and cancer1–6. Perhaps the most important role for the community of microorganisms that live in our gut — termed the microbiota, which include bacteria, fungi and archaea — is to aid immune-system development7. Writing in Nature, Tanoue et al.8 report the identification of 11 strains of bacteria that reside in the guts of some healthy humans and that can boost immune responses that fight infection and cancer.

A particularly potent type of immune cell that recognizes and kills infected and cancerous cells is the cytotoxic CD8+ T cell. These cells identify target cells through interactions between their T-cell receptor proteins (TCRs) and peptide fragments called antigens from the target cell. Harnessing an approach used previously9,10 to identify bacterial strains that can boost certain subsets of T cell, Tanoue and colleagues used mouse models in their search for bacteria that drive production of the subset of CD8+ T cells that produce a potent immunostimulatory protein called interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and are known as CD8+ IFN-γ+ T cells. They found that mice housed under normal laboratory conditions had this type of T cell in their colons, but that such cells were mainly absent in mice raised in a germ-free environment.

Lees het hele artikel: https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-00133-w