Gut microbes as future therapeutics in treating inflammatory and infectious diseases: Lessons from recent findings [review, 2018]

A fairly lengthy and technical review of the gut microbiome. Much of it probably over the level of most people here (including me), but it does contain some interesting and useful stuff, including a chart “Gut microbes and probiotics in controlling parasitic infections”. Covers much of the gut microbiome’s extraintestinal impacts.


The human gut microbiota has been the interest of extensive research in recent years and our knowledge on using the potential capacity of these microbes are growing rapidly. Microorganisms colonized throughout the gastrointestinal tract of human are coevolved through symbiotic relationship and can influence physiology, metabolism, nutrition and immune functions of an individual. The gut microbes are directly involved in conferring protection against pathogen colonization by inducing direct killing, competing with nutrients and enhancing the response of the gut-associated immune repertoire. Damage in the microbiome (dysbiosis) is linked with several life-threatening outcomes viz. inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, obesity, allergy, and auto-immune disorders. Therefore, the manipulation of human gut microbiota came out as a potential choice for therapeutic intervention of the several human diseases. Herein, we review significant studies emphasizing the influence of the gut microbiota on the regulation of host responses in combating infectious and inflammatory diseases alongside describing the promises of gut microbes as future therapeutics.


1.0 Gut microbiota and human diseases

2.0 Gastrointestinal diseases

2.1 Cancer

2.2 Metabolic diseases

2.3 Allergies

3.0 Mechanism of the function of gut microbiota

3.1 Physicochemical mechanisms: Human-Gut microbiota interactions

3.2 Manipulation of human immune response

3.3 Microbiota and adaptive immune response

4.0 Gut microbes and infectious diseases

5.0 Gut microbes as therapeutics: Current trends of using gut microbes, prospects and challenges

5.1 Molecular approaches in gut microbiota research

5.2 Gut microbes as therapeutics


Conclusion and future directions

Table 2: Gut microbes and probiotics in controlling parasitic infections.


  • Composition and physiological functions of human gut microbiota and associated diseases have been discussed.

  • Mechanistic insights of gut microbiota mediated protection to inflammatory and infectious diseases have been reviewed.

  • Current trends of gut microbes targeted therapeutic strategies; promises and drawbacks have been discussed.


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