Long Term No-Till Case Study

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This family run farm is the pioneer of no-tillage farming in the Parana state in Brazil. The Uemura family started with soybean cultivation applying conventional farming methods. However, they realised that the yield was decreasing due to soil erosion while the cost for agricultural inputs were rising, making farming in there area more unfeasible.

Because of this they decided to implement the no-tillage system in the late of 1970. The initial challenges were based around a lack of the proper equipment, however they were able to reach stable production after the soil biological processes were restored. This farm has implemented EM technology on their farm for the past 3 years with the goal of finding an alternative to fight disease and improve the soil to withstand the variable weather in the region.

Business Overview

Farm Scale: 2000 ha

Products: Wheat, soybeans, beans, corn

Production: Wheat crops average 4.5 tonnes/ha

Workforce: 9 Staff

Problems

The major problems on the farm are:

  • White mold – most critical disease
  • Resistance against herbicides and insecticides which cause a decrease in production and increase costs
  • Variable weather including a very dry winter with almost no rain in 2016 followed by extreme rain in 2017
  • High expenses in agricultural inputs

EM Application

  • They use EM on rotation crops of wheat, soybean, bean and corn alternating crops per season.
  • Usually, they apply EM directly to soil.
  • After harvest, they leave crop residues on the land to protect the soil from the rain and then, before planting, they spray EM again to promote decomposition process.
  • In order to maximise the effect of EM, the distribute the dosage throughout the crop season in a little and often approach.

Applications rate:

  • 1st Year: (2015) 80L/ha
  • 2nd Year: (2016) 60L/ha

Effects and Results

  1. During winter of 2016 they did not have much rain so neighboring farmers had production decreases and poor quality crops. However, Mr. Uemura’s wheat had the same production and high quality of previous years
  2. Mr. Uemura won a competition for best quality wheat in the region.
  3. Wheat grows homogeneously.
  4. Better root growth, as a result, improved establishment of plants into the soil, preventing them from getting washed away in rainy season.
  5. Improved growth has helped plants to be resistant against drought and disease.
  6. Using EM Technology in soil, promoted soil recovery and loosened soil structure.
  7. Using EM, grains grow larger, are more densely packed, and heavier, so they are sold at a premium price on the market

Bron: https://www.emnz.com/article/no-till

8 of the most powerful probiotic-rich foods (that aren’t yogurt)

Many foods are beneficial for the gut, but some reign supreme in terms of their abundance of live microorganisms. Eating foods rich in probiotic microorganisms can help your digestive system function more efficiently and may contribute to a healthier immune system, along with many other health benefits.

Chances are, yogurt is the first food that comes to mind when you think of probiotics. While it certainly is an amazing source of good bacteria, it’s not the only one! There are a wide variety of other fermented, probiotic foods you can include in your diet to get the gut-boosting benefits you seek.

Kefir
Kefir is a cultured beverage similar to yogurt, but it’s thinner and drinkable. It can be made from many types of dairy or non-dairy milk, including cow, goat, sheep, or coconut. Unlike yogurt, which is fermented using heat, kefir is fermented at room temperature. Kefir is made by adding “kefir grains,” a microbial symbiotic mixture of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria, to milk. Kefir has a slightly acidic and tart flavor, and is full of helpful microbes; it can contain anywhere from 10 to 34 strains of probiotics and beneficial yeasts.

Kimchi
Kimchi is a traditional Korean dish of pickled vegetables, most commonly a mix of napa cabbage and Korean radishes and sometimes other veggies and spices. Kimchi is made by lacto-fermentation, a preservation process in which food is fermented by beneficial Lactobacillus bacteria.

First, the vegetables are soaked in a salty brine that kills off any harmful bacteria. Then, the probioticLactobacillus bacteria convert sugars in the vegetables into lactic acid – preserving them, increasing their shelf-life, and giving them that tangy flavor that people love. Kimchi is regarded as a rich source of beneficial bacteria. In fact, one of the bacterial species found in kimchi is named after it: Lactobacillus kimchii.

Sauerkraut
Like kimchi, sauerkraut is also shredded cabbage that has been fermented by lactic acid.  Sauerkraut, however, usually ferments at a higher temperature than kimchi, resulting in a higher concentration of lactic acid bacteria and a bit of a tangier flavor. When you’re shopping for this delicious veggie at your local market, look for fresh sauerkraut in the refrigerated section. If the kraut has undergone pasteurization, all bacteria strains have been killed – even the probiotic ones. Like kimchi, sauerkraut and other fermented veggies contain several bacteria of the Lactobacillus genus, such as  Lactobacillus plantarumL. pentosusL. brevisL. acidophilusL. fermentumLeuconostoc fallax, and L. mesenteroides.

Kombucha
Kombucha has recently become very popular in health-food scene as both a delicious and probiotic-packed beverage. Kombucha is a fermented tea, and most types also include the addition of a little sugar or fruit juice. Think of kombucha as a fizzy, healthier alternative to soda, as it has far fewer calories and less added sugar.

Kombucha is created through fermentation with what is known as a “SCOBY,” which is a symbiotic colony of bacteria and yeast. During the fermentation process, kombucha obtains a small amount of alcohol, so consult with your doctor about whether it’s safe for you to drink during pregnancy.

Olives
It’s easy to forget that these beloved, salty snacks are one of the most commonly eaten and widely fermented foods in the world. In addition to their antioxidant properties and healthy unsaturated fats, olives also give you a burst of beneficial bacteria. After olives are placed in brine, Lactobacillus bacteria cause them to ferment. After the fermentation process, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus pentosus are the predominant species of probiotic bacteria found in olives.

Miso
Miso, a staple of Japanese cuisine, is yet another probiotic powerhouse. It is made from soybeans, water, and koji (cooked grains or soybeans inoculated with a mold, Aspergillus oryzae, which begins the fermentation process). As the koji enzymes break down the soybeans, the simple sugars created become fodder for bacteria such as Pediococcus halophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii. These bacteria break down the sugar into lactic acids that contribute to the flavor of the miso. There are many varieties of miso, and each variety uniquely reflects the microorganisms native to the area in which it is made. This gives the miso an individualized flavor and sometimes a unique appearance. Depending on the type of miso, the aging process may range between two months and three years.

Before you go off to make your own miso soup, there is one important thing to note: the probiotic bacteria in miso can be killed at high heat. You can avoid destroying the beneficial bacteria by adding miso to foods when their temperatures are below boiling.

Tempeh
Tempeh, a fermented soybean-based product that originates from Indonesia, has gained popularity all over the world. Not only is it a source of probiotics – it is also a rich source of protein, making it an excellent meat substitute for vegetarians and omnivores, alike. This cake-like product is typically made of fermented soybeans and has an earthy, nutty flavor. During the fermentation process, the bacteria also produce vitamin B12, a nutrient that soybeans do not naturally contain. Tempeh is also a rich source of other B vitamins, such as vitamin B6 and folic acid.

Coconut yogurt
If you have to limit or eliminate dairy in your diet, coconut yogurt can be an awesome way to get probiotics in the same creamy and delicious way as the typical dairy variety. Coconut yogurt can be an especially powerful source of probiotics and has an extra tangy, effervescent effect. Add coconut yogurt to smoothies, or enjoy a few spoonfuls with nut butter and berries – the options are endless.

Want to know more about your own gut microbiome? You and your healthcare provider can use uBiome’s SmartGut testing to find out how your gut microbiome is functioning and to monitor changes in your gut flora over time.

Bron: https://ubiome.com/blog/post/8-powerful-probiotic-rich-foods-arent-yogurt/

Nitraten in bewerkt vlees oorzaak van manisch gedrag

Het eten van veel bewerkt vlees (=vleeswaren) is al in verband gebracht met kanker. Maar nu blijkt dit ook oorzaak te zijn van manisch gedrag: stemmingsstoornissen, gekenmerkt door hyperactiviteit, euforie en slapeloosheid. Deze stemmingswisselingen zijn bekend van ‘bipolaire stoornis’ (psychiatrische stoornis), waar ze afwisselen met periodes van depressie. En ze kunnen ernstig zijn omdat tijdens een ‘manische episode’ de persoon het contact met de werkelijkheid verliest, onmogelijke dingen start, maar nooit afwerkt, veel geld gaat uitgeven, enz…

Onderzoekers (John Hopkins universiteit, VS) ontdekten dit verband na screening van ruim duizend mensen, waarbij ze merkten dat diegenen die veel bewerkt vlees aten, een 3,5 maal hoger risico liepen op een psychiatrische stoornis. Via onderzoek bij ratten kwamen ze tot de conclusie dat de nitraten in bewerkt vlees de boosdoener zijn, omdat ze de darmflora veranderen, en dit beïnvloedt ook de hersenen.
En dit verklaart waarom mensen met bipolaire stoornis merkelijk verbeteren met probiotica

Bron: https://www.abcgezondheid.be/nl/news/nitraten_in_bewerkt_vlees_oorzaak_van_manisch_gedrag/

Local composting gets a fillip

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dit artikel kwamen tegen, uit het archief van de Hindu (21-12-2017):

Facilities to be opened in Avadi, Thiruverkadu and Poonamallee replicating Tiruchi and Vellore models

By February, a portion of the bio-degradable waste generated at Avadi, Thiruverkadu and Poonamallee municipalities may not reach the dump yards. As part of an effort towards decentralised solid waste management, the Commissionerate of Municipal Administration (CMA) is opening micro-compost processing centres in these local bodies.

Transportation and finding space for dumping the garbage are major challenges faced by these local bodies now. To find a solution, the CMA plans to set up 33 decentralised compost processing plants. Each centre would have the capacity to convert 4 tonnes of bio-degradable waste into manure and would be operational by February.

The CMA had recently signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited, which would fund the ₹10.96 crore project under its corporate social responsibility initiative. CMA officials said while 17 centres would come up, the remaining plants would be operated in Poonamallee and Thiruverkadu following the success of the initiative in Tiruchi and Vellore.

While welcoming the project, residents of Avadi said the local body must put an end to the erratic collection and transportation of garbage. Besides launching a helpline to register complaints, the municipalities must ensure that these are not short-lived projects, they said. At Avadi, the sanitary workers were allowed to collect non-biodegradable waste on Wednesdays and sell the recyclable waste. Nearly 25 tonnes of the 140 tonnes of garbage generated was prevented from going to the dump yard, officials said. “These compost processing plants will be located about two km from the collection points in 28 wards and reduce the garbage by one-third of its actual volume. We plan to use the effective microbes (EM) solution to convert waste into manure. As of now, there are plans to use the manure in municipality parks and also provide it to residents free of cost,” said an official.

Besides aiming at reducing the volume transported to the dump yard, the initiative also aims at lowering transportation cost and reclaiming a 15-acre space in Sekkadu now serving as a dump yard and putting it to better use. At present, the collected waste is being dumped at transit points from where it is removed to dump yard.

“We plan to use battery-operated vehicles to transport collected waste to the facility. In the long run, user charges may be levied,” said an official of the Avadi municipality.

BRON: https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/chennai/local-composting-gets-a-fillip/article22105695.ece

Volgend jaar tóch EM bessenpluk festijn!

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In de uitnodiging van juli dit jaar hebben we aangekondigd dat we er een tweede EM Bessenpluk zou komen in de nazomer, zoals u dat van ons gewend bent. Helaas hebben we dit vanwege de aanhoudende droogte niet kunnen doen. De irrigatie was niet opgewassen tegen de droogte, waardoor de meer dan 5000 blauwe bessen struiken zijn verdord. Er waren slechts enkele bramen die weerstand wisten te bieden tegen deze aanhoudende droogte.
Het leek erop dat dit deze nazomer EM Bessenpluk de laatste zou zijn, vanwege een onoverkomelijke pachtverhoging van het land waar de EM Weldaadbessen gaarde zich op bevindt. Maar we hebben goed nieuws! Auke Vonk heeft met zekerheid kunnen zeggen dat er volgend jaar toch nog een EM Bessenpluk komt! Het is zelfs goed mogelijk dat de Weldaadbessen gaarde zal blijven bestaan. Het wordt dan een reintegratieproject waar de familie Vonk nog wel zal helpen het land te voorzien van EM en de bijen.
Ondanks de gemiste nazomer Bessenpluk zijn we erg blij dit heugelijke nieuws te brengen! We zien jullie graag volgend jaar weer in Wilhelminaoord!

There are more microbial species on Earth than stars in the galaxy

For centuries, humans have endeavoured to discover and describe the sum of Earth’s biological diversity. Scientists and naturalists have catalogued species from all continents and oceans, from the depths of Earth’s crust to the highest mountains, and from the most remote jungles to our most populated cities. This grand effort sheds light on the forms and behaviours that evolution has made possible, while serving as the foundation for understanding the common descent of life. Until recently, our planet was thought to be inhabited by nearly 10 million species (107). Though no small number, this estimate is based almost solely on species that can be seen with the naked eye.

What about smaller species such as bacteria, archaea, protists and fungi? Collectively, these microbial taxa are the most abundant, widespread and longest-evolving forms of life on the planet. What is their contribution to global biodiversity? When microorganisms are taken into account, recent studies suggest that Earth might be home to a staggering 1 trillion (1012) species. If true, then the grand effort to discover Earth’s biodiversity has only come within a 1,000th of 1 per cent of all species on the planet.

Estimating microbial diversity even in the most ordinary of habitats presents a unique set of challenges. For more than a century, scientists identified microbial species by first culturing them on Petri dishes and then characterising cellular properties, along with aspects of their physiology such as thermal tolerances, the substrates they consume, or the enzymes they produce. Such approaches dramatically underestimate diversity, not only because it is difficult to grow the vast majority of microorganisms, but also because unrelated microbial species can perform similar functions and are unlikely to be distinguished by their appearance.

During the mid-1990s, a growing number of microbiologists began to abandon cultivation techniques in favour of identifying organisms by directly sequencing nucleic acids – DNA – from ocean water, leaf surfaces, wetland sediments, and even the biofilms inside of showerheads. Over the past decade, these methods have been dramatically refined so that millions of individual microbes can be sampled at once. With this high-throughput approach, we have learned that a single gramme of agricultural soil can routinely contain more than 10,000 species. Similarly, we know that nearly 10 trillion (1013) bacterial cells make up a human’s microbiome. These microbes not only aid in their host’s digestion and nutrition, but also represent an extension of its immune system. Looking beyond ourselves, microbes are found in Earth’s crust, its atmosphere, and the full depth of its oceans and ice caps. In total, the estimated number of microbial cells on Earth hovers around a nonillion (1030), a number that outstrips imagination and exceeds the estimated number of stars in the Universe. Naturally, this begs the question of how many species might actually exist.

Long lists of species have been made for nearly every ecosystem on Earth, with nearly 20,000 plant and animal species discovered each year. Many of these species happen to be beetles, but reports of rodents, fish, reptiles and even primates are not uncommon. While exciting to biologists and the public alike, new plant and animal species contribute only around 2 per cent per year to the total number of species, a sign that we might be approaching a near-complete census of those organisms on the planet.

In sharp contrast, deep lineages containing untold species are being described at a rapid rate in the microbial world. A few years ago, from a single aquifer in Colorado, scientists found 35 new bacterial phyla; a phylum is a broad group containing thousands, tens of thousands or, for microbes, even millions of related species. The phyla discovered in that one aquifer amounted to 15 per cent of all previously recognised bacterial phyla on Earth. To put this in context, humans belong to the phylum Chordata, but so do more than 65,000 other species of animals that possess a notochord (or skeletal rod), including mammals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and tunicates. Such findings suggest that we are at the tip of the iceberg in terms of describing diversity of the microbial biosphere.

Ideally, there should be agreement on what constitutes a species if we are to achieve an estimate of global biodiversity. For plants and animals, a species is generally defined as a group of organisms that are able to mate and produce viable offspring. This definition, unfortunately, is not very useful for classifying microbial species because they reproduce asexually. (Microorganisms can transfer genes among closely related individuals through processes known as ‘horizontal gene transfer’, which is akin to the recombination that occurs in sexually reproducing organisms.)

Nevertheless, there are ways of categorising organisms based on shared ancestry, which can be inferred from genetic data. The most commonly used technique for delineating microbial taxa involves comparisons of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences. This gene is involved in building ribosomes, the molecular machines that are required for protein synthesis among all forms of life. By comparing the similarities among sequences, scientists can identify groups of taxa without needing to grow them or painstakingly characterise their physiology or cellular structure. Of the many caveats associated with this rRNA-based classification of microbial taxa is the fact that it likely underestimates the true number of species. If so, then the recent prediction that Earth might be home to as many as 1012 species could, in fact, be a conservative estimate, despite its incredible magnitude.

Knowing the number of microbial species on Earth could have practical implications that improve our quality of life. The prospect of yet-to-be harnessed biodiversity might spur development of alternative fuels to meet growing energy demands, new crops to feed our rapidly growing population, and medicines to fight emerging infectious diseases. But perhaps there is a more basic reason for wanting to know how many species we share the planet with. Since the predawn of civilisation, the survival of our species depended on trials and errors with plants, animals and microbes that we attempted to harvest, domesticate or avoid all together. Our interest in biodiversity also reflects an intrinsic curiosity about the natural world and our place within it. Whether to admire, protect, transform or exploit, humans have never sought to be wholly ignorant of the species that inhabit Earth.

Jay T Lennon , is professor of biology at Indiana University, Bloomington.

Kenneth J Locey, is a faculty member at Diné College, of the Navajo Nation, in Arizona.

Edited by Pam Weintraub

Bron: https://aeon.co/ideas/there-are-more-microbial-species-on-earth-than-stars-in-the-sky