Volgend jaar tóch EM bessenpluk festijn!

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In de uitnodiging van juli dit jaar hebben we aangekondigd dat we er een tweede EM Bessenpluk zou komen in de nazomer, zoals u dat van ons gewend bent. Helaas hebben we dit vanwege de aanhoudende droogte niet kunnen doen. De irrigatie was niet opgewassen tegen de droogte, waardoor de meer dan 5000 blauwe bessen struiken zijn verdord. Er waren slechts enkele bramen die weerstand wisten te bieden tegen deze aanhoudende droogte.
Het leek erop dat dit deze nazomer EM Bessenpluk de laatste zou zijn, vanwege een onoverkomelijke pachtverhoging van het land waar de EM Weldaadbessen gaarde zich op bevindt. Maar we hebben goed nieuws! Auke Vonk heeft met zekerheid kunnen zeggen dat er volgend jaar toch nog een EM Bessenpluk komt! Het is zelfs goed mogelijk dat de Weldaadbessen gaarde zal blijven bestaan. Het wordt dan een reintegratieproject waar de familie Vonk nog wel zal helpen het land te voorzien van EM en de bijen.
Ondanks de gemiste nazomer Bessenpluk zijn we erg blij dit heugelijke nieuws te brengen! We zien jullie graag volgend jaar weer in Wilhelminaoord!

There are more microbial species on Earth than stars in the galaxy

For centuries, humans have endeavoured to discover and describe the sum of Earth’s biological diversity. Scientists and naturalists have catalogued species from all continents and oceans, from the depths of Earth’s crust to the highest mountains, and from the most remote jungles to our most populated cities. This grand effort sheds light on the forms and behaviours that evolution has made possible, while serving as the foundation for understanding the common descent of life. Until recently, our planet was thought to be inhabited by nearly 10 million species (107). Though no small number, this estimate is based almost solely on species that can be seen with the naked eye.

What about smaller species such as bacteria, archaea, protists and fungi? Collectively, these microbial taxa are the most abundant, widespread and longest-evolving forms of life on the planet. What is their contribution to global biodiversity? When microorganisms are taken into account, recent studies suggest that Earth might be home to a staggering 1 trillion (1012) species. If true, then the grand effort to discover Earth’s biodiversity has only come within a 1,000th of 1 per cent of all species on the planet.

Estimating microbial diversity even in the most ordinary of habitats presents a unique set of challenges. For more than a century, scientists identified microbial species by first culturing them on Petri dishes and then characterising cellular properties, along with aspects of their physiology such as thermal tolerances, the substrates they consume, or the enzymes they produce. Such approaches dramatically underestimate diversity, not only because it is difficult to grow the vast majority of microorganisms, but also because unrelated microbial species can perform similar functions and are unlikely to be distinguished by their appearance.

During the mid-1990s, a growing number of microbiologists began to abandon cultivation techniques in favour of identifying organisms by directly sequencing nucleic acids – DNA – from ocean water, leaf surfaces, wetland sediments, and even the biofilms inside of showerheads. Over the past decade, these methods have been dramatically refined so that millions of individual microbes can be sampled at once. With this high-throughput approach, we have learned that a single gramme of agricultural soil can routinely contain more than 10,000 species. Similarly, we know that nearly 10 trillion (1013) bacterial cells make up a human’s microbiome. These microbes not only aid in their host’s digestion and nutrition, but also represent an extension of its immune system. Looking beyond ourselves, microbes are found in Earth’s crust, its atmosphere, and the full depth of its oceans and ice caps. In total, the estimated number of microbial cells on Earth hovers around a nonillion (1030), a number that outstrips imagination and exceeds the estimated number of stars in the Universe. Naturally, this begs the question of how many species might actually exist.

Long lists of species have been made for nearly every ecosystem on Earth, with nearly 20,000 plant and animal species discovered each year. Many of these species happen to be beetles, but reports of rodents, fish, reptiles and even primates are not uncommon. While exciting to biologists and the public alike, new plant and animal species contribute only around 2 per cent per year to the total number of species, a sign that we might be approaching a near-complete census of those organisms on the planet.

In sharp contrast, deep lineages containing untold species are being described at a rapid rate in the microbial world. A few years ago, from a single aquifer in Colorado, scientists found 35 new bacterial phyla; a phylum is a broad group containing thousands, tens of thousands or, for microbes, even millions of related species. The phyla discovered in that one aquifer amounted to 15 per cent of all previously recognised bacterial phyla on Earth. To put this in context, humans belong to the phylum Chordata, but so do more than 65,000 other species of animals that possess a notochord (or skeletal rod), including mammals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and tunicates. Such findings suggest that we are at the tip of the iceberg in terms of describing diversity of the microbial biosphere.

Ideally, there should be agreement on what constitutes a species if we are to achieve an estimate of global biodiversity. For plants and animals, a species is generally defined as a group of organisms that are able to mate and produce viable offspring. This definition, unfortunately, is not very useful for classifying microbial species because they reproduce asexually. (Microorganisms can transfer genes among closely related individuals through processes known as ‘horizontal gene transfer’, which is akin to the recombination that occurs in sexually reproducing organisms.)

Nevertheless, there are ways of categorising organisms based on shared ancestry, which can be inferred from genetic data. The most commonly used technique for delineating microbial taxa involves comparisons of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences. This gene is involved in building ribosomes, the molecular machines that are required for protein synthesis among all forms of life. By comparing the similarities among sequences, scientists can identify groups of taxa without needing to grow them or painstakingly characterise their physiology or cellular structure. Of the many caveats associated with this rRNA-based classification of microbial taxa is the fact that it likely underestimates the true number of species. If so, then the recent prediction that Earth might be home to as many as 1012 species could, in fact, be a conservative estimate, despite its incredible magnitude.

Knowing the number of microbial species on Earth could have practical implications that improve our quality of life. The prospect of yet-to-be harnessed biodiversity might spur development of alternative fuels to meet growing energy demands, new crops to feed our rapidly growing population, and medicines to fight emerging infectious diseases. But perhaps there is a more basic reason for wanting to know how many species we share the planet with. Since the predawn of civilisation, the survival of our species depended on trials and errors with plants, animals and microbes that we attempted to harvest, domesticate or avoid all together. Our interest in biodiversity also reflects an intrinsic curiosity about the natural world and our place within it. Whether to admire, protect, transform or exploit, humans have never sought to be wholly ignorant of the species that inhabit Earth.

Jay T Lennon , is professor of biology at Indiana University, Bloomington.

Kenneth J Locey, is a faculty member at Diné College, of the Navajo Nation, in Arizona.

Edited by Pam Weintraub

Bron: https://aeon.co/ideas/there-are-more-microbial-species-on-earth-than-stars-in-the-sky

Bokashi-actie Taribusk Kuna festival 2018 wederom een groot succes

Ook deze editie van het Taribush Kuna Festival in Dwingeloo was weer een groot succes. Tijdens dit alternatieve festival zijn bij de diverse foodtrucks en de centrale keuken bijna 175 kg organisch afval opgehaald.

Net als voorgaande jaren wordt hiervan bokashi gemaakt, die vervolgens gebruikt wordt in de kwekerij van Marc-o-biotica in Hemrik. Hierop kweken wij de groente voor komend jaar (tijdens de opbouw van het festival wordt hiermee gekookt voor de vrijwilligers).

Anders dan vorig jaar heb ik al tijdens het inzamelen de Bokashi-starter toegevoegd. Door het warme weer begon het fermentatieproces meteen. Na 3 weken was het geheel gefermenteerd en is de bokashi meteen in de grond verwerkt.

Door het warme weer was de Bokashi zeer snel klaar, meteen in de grond verwerkt.  Zodat het zijn werk kan doen.

Eet smakelijk!!! en tot volgend jaar.

Bron: https://www.marc-o-biotica.nl/bokashi-actie-taribusk-kuna-festival-2018-wederom-een-groot-succes/

Gut Bacteria Can Produce Electricity

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Listeria bacteria transport electrons through their cell wall into the environment as tiny currents, assisted by ubiquitous flavin molecules (yellow dots). Credit: Amy Cao. Copyright UC Berkeley.

Researchers have discovered that bacteria that are part of the human gut microbiome have the ability to produce electricity, using techniques that differ from known electrogenic bacteria.

Scientists from the University of California Berkeley have found that Listeria monocytogenes and hundreds of other bacterial species produce electricity, a discovery that could yield living batteries from microbes.

“The fact that so many bugs that interact with humans, either as pathogens or in probiotics or in our microbiota or involved in fermentation of human products, are electrogenic—that had been missed before,” Dan Portnoy, a UC Berkeley professor of molecular and cell biology and of plant and microbial biology, said in a statement. “It could tell us a lot about how these bacteria infect us or help us have a healthy gut.”

Bacteria generates electricity to remove electrons produced during metabolism and support energy production. While animals and plants transfer their electrons to oxygen inside the mitochondria of every cell, bacteria must find another electron acceptor in environments with no oxygen, like the human gut, alcohol and cheese fermentation vats and acidic mines. In geologic environments, that has often been a mineral —- iron or manganese, for example —- outside the cell. In some sense, these bacteria “breathe” iron or manganese.

Transferring electrons out of the cell to a mineral requires a cascade of special chemical reactions called an extracellular electron transfer chain that will carry the electrons as a small electrical current. Some researchers have used the chain to develop a battery by sticking an electrode in a flask of the bacteria to generate electricity.

However, the new extracellular electron transfer system is only used by bacteria when necessary, including when oxygen levels are low and has only been found in bacteria with a single cell wall that live in an environment with lots of flavin.

“It seems that the cell structure of these bacteria and the vitamin-rich ecological niche that they occupy makes it significantly easier and more cost effective to transfer electrons out of the cell,” first author Sam Light, a postdoctoral fellow, said in a statement. “Thus, we think that the conventionally studied mineral-respiring bacteria are using extracellular electron transfer because it is crucial for survival, whereas these newly identified bacteria are using it because it is ‘easy’.”

The researchers then explored the interactions between living microbes and inorganic materials for possible applications in carbon capture and sequestration and bio-solar energy generation. Biogenetic technologies could produce electricity from bacteria in waste treatment plants.

They used an electrode to measure the electric current that streams from the bacteria—up to 500 microamps—to confirm that the bacteria is electrogenic.

The study was published in Nature.

Bron: https://www.rdmag.com/article/2018/09/gut-bacteria-can-produce-electricity

Gut microbes as future therapeutics in treating inflammatory and infectious diseases: Lessons from recent findings [review, 2018]

A fairly lengthy and technical review of the gut microbiome. Much of it probably over the level of most people here (including me), but it does contain some interesting and useful stuff, including a chart “Gut microbes and probiotics in controlling parasitic infections”. Covers much of the gut microbiome’s extraintestinal impacts.

https://sci-hub.tw/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2018.07.010

ABSTRACT

The human gut microbiota has been the interest of extensive research in recent years and our knowledge on using the potential capacity of these microbes are growing rapidly. Microorganisms colonized throughout the gastrointestinal tract of human are coevolved through symbiotic relationship and can influence physiology, metabolism, nutrition and immune functions of an individual. The gut microbes are directly involved in conferring protection against pathogen colonization by inducing direct killing, competing with nutrients and enhancing the response of the gut-associated immune repertoire. Damage in the microbiome (dysbiosis) is linked with several life-threatening outcomes viz. inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, obesity, allergy, and auto-immune disorders. Therefore, the manipulation of human gut microbiota came out as a potential choice for therapeutic intervention of the several human diseases. Herein, we review significant studies emphasizing the influence of the gut microbiota on the regulation of host responses in combating infectious and inflammatory diseases alongside describing the promises of gut microbes as future therapeutics.

Introduction

1.0 Gut microbiota and human diseases

2.0 Gastrointestinal diseases

2.1 Cancer

2.2 Metabolic diseases

2.3 Allergies

3.0 Mechanism of the function of gut microbiota

3.1 Physicochemical mechanisms: Human-Gut microbiota interactions

3.2 Manipulation of human immune response

3.3 Microbiota and adaptive immune response

4.0 Gut microbes and infectious diseases

5.0 Gut microbes as therapeutics: Current trends of using gut microbes, prospects and challenges

5.1 Molecular approaches in gut microbiota research

5.2 Gut microbes as therapeutics

 

Conclusion and future directions

Table 2: Gut microbes and probiotics in controlling parasitic infections.

Highlights

  • Composition and physiological functions of human gut microbiota and associated diseases have been discussed.

  • Mechanistic insights of gut microbiota mediated protection to inflammatory and infectious diseases have been reviewed.

  • Current trends of gut microbes targeted therapeutic strategies; promises and drawbacks have been discussed.

Bron: https://www.reddit.com/r/HumanMicrobiome/comments/9flzq7/gut_microbes_as_future_therapeutics_in_treating

Bron via Sci-Hub (a project to make knowledge free): https://sci-hub.tw/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2018.07.010

 

A research paper published in the Journal of Environmental Radioactivity

A research paper with the results of a joint project between EMRO and Belarus Institute of Radiobiology (IRB) has been published in the Journal of Environmental Radioactivity.

Please click here to access and download:
「Impact of Effective Microorganisms on the Transfer of Radioactive Cesium into Lettuce and Barley Biomass」

*Available until September 30,2018.

Bron: https://www.emrojapan.com/news/detail/177

Direct link van het onderzoek op onze website: Impact of effective microorganisms on the transfer of radioactive cesiuminto lettuce and barley biomass

Een uittreksel uit het onderzoek (137CS = het radioactieve Cesium):

4. Conclusion

  1. The application of EM, which consists of lactic-acid bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria, and yeast, along with the application of EM combined with bokashi or potassium fertilizer to the soil surface and above-ground parts of plants increased the crop yields of barley and lettuce.
  2. Enriching sod-podzolic sandy-loam soil by EM and bokashi sig-nificantly decreased the biological availability of 137Cs by 38% and reduced the transfer of Cs into the biomass of barley by 44%. The greatest reductions in 137Cs transfer into barley biomass were obtained when EM was combined with bokashi or potassium fertilizer, which reduced137Cs transfer by 50% or 60%, respectively.
  3. The suppressive effect of EM on 137Cs transfer varied depending on the plant species; the effect of EM on 137Cs transfer was greater in barley than in lettuce.
  4. The decrease in 137Cs uptake into plants caused by EM can be at-tributed to the reduction in the fraction of bioavailable forms of 137Cs (soluble and exchangeable forms). After four months of treatment with EM and bokashi, the soluble form of137Cs in the soil decreased by 48% and 72% compared to the control, respectively.The fraction of exchangeable 137Cs was significantly reduced by21% compared to the control in the soil treated with bokashi only.

EM Vocational Program for a Prison in Belize

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Belize is a country located in Central America,between Mexico and Guatemala.

In Belize Central Prison, inmates are trained by staff on how to grow vegetables and livestock using EM.
These skills will helps them when they go back to society.

We interviewed a staff about how EM is applied practically.
Please enjoy the video on our Youtube channel, EM Library!

“A vocational program using EM at Belize Central Prison”

Video-link: https://youtu.be/AD3gn4FmMiU

Bron: https://www.emrojapan.com/news/detail/178