TedTalk: the surprisingly charming science of our gut

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Een interessante TedTalk over onze darmen.

Ever wonder how we poop? Learn about the gut — the system where digestion (and a whole lot more) happens — as doctor and author Giulia Enders takes us inside the complex, fascinating science behind it, including its connection to mental health. It turns out, looking closer at something we might shy away from can leave us feeling more fearless and appreciative of ourselves.

Bron: https://www.ted.com/talks/giulia_enders_the_surprisingly_charming_science_of_our_gut?utm_campaign=tedspread–b&utm_medium=referral&utm_source=tedcomshare

9 Goede bronnen van probiotica

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Het belang van een gezonde darmflora krijgt sinds een paar jaar veel aandacht, en terecht. Door de darmen te voorzien van de goede bacteriën, verbeteren we enorm veel: de vertering, het immuunsysteem, het mentale welzijn, de gezondheid en zelfs het gewicht. Eet dus vaker probiotische voeding. Maar welke 9 voedingssoorten bevatten probiotica?

Voeding nummer 1 die met probiotica geassocieerd wordt is yoghurt. Maar niet iedereen kan tegen zuivel. Gelukkig zijn er nog andere opties!
Sommige van de onderstaande opties bevatten soja. De effecten van soja op de gezondheid zijn helemaal niet zo geweldig, omdat niet iedereen het verschil maakt tussen gefermenteerde en ongefermenteerde bonen. Hierbij komt, dat er bijna geen sojaboon meer die niet gemodificeerd is en die niet veelvuldig besproeid is met pesticiden. Eet soja niet ongefermenteerd en consumeer de bijgerechten miso, tempeh en natto bij voorkeur biologisch en gewoon met mate.

Miso
Misosoep kun je kopen of zelf maken met ingrediënten van de toko. Voor miso kunnen ook kikkererwten of bruine rijst gebruikt worden
Wie wel eens bij een Japans restaurant eet, is vast bekend met miso soep; een bouillon (broth) die pasta van gefermenteerde sojabonen bevat. Deze kruidenpasta is een smaakmaker en wordt ook wel umami genoemd, de vijfde smaak. Miso is een gefermenteerde mix van koji (een schimmel), sojabonen, gerst en zout. De pasta zit voor gezonde bacteriën voor vitale darmflora. Je kunt de soja vermijden door miso die gemaakt is van bruine rijst, havermout of kikkererwten.

Tempeh
Tempeh kan ook op basis van kikkererwten zijn
Ook tempeh zit vol goede probiotica. Het bevat gefermenteerde sojabonen en heeft een nootachtige smaak. Tempeh ontstaat door fermentatie van gekookte sojabonen met een Rhizopus schimmel. Door deze fermentatie binden de sojabonen zich tot een vaste witte koek. Oorspronkelijk komt tempeh uit Indonesië: hier werd het toevallig ontdekt doordat gekookte sojabonen in hibiscusblad bewaard werd, en hibiscusblad bevat Rhizopus schimmel bevat, te bewaren. Tempeh wint globaal aan populariteit, omdat mensen het als manier zien om opname van sojabonen te verhogen. Via de boven gegeven links van 2 artikelen lees je waarom het een slecht idee is om met soja en sojagerechten te overdrijven. Er is ook op hennep en op kikkererwt gebaseerde tempeh, die je thuis kunt maken. De Groene Meisjes leggen uit, hoe je tempeh maakt.

Zuurkool
Eet zuurkool bij voorkeur rauw. Er zijn tal van lekkere salades te maken met zuurkool !Zelfgemaakte zuurkool heeft een zachtere, minder zure smaak
De zuurkool werd oorspronkelijk in Oost Europa gemaakt: witte kool die door melkzuurgisting zuur wordt. Deze zuurkool uit het vat smaakt normaal gesproken minder zuur, dan dat wij het in de supermarkt kopen en heeft een aangename milde smaak. Je kunt het makkelijk zelf maken. Als je het toch wilt kopen, hou er dan rekening mee dat pasteurisatie de goede bacteriën vernietigt. Je kunt zuurkool combineren met tempeh en zuurdesembrood, zo creëer je een enorme krachtbron van probiotica! Wil je zelf zuurkool maken, bij ‘Levenvanhetland’ leggen ze uit hoe je dit doet. Je hoeft niet perse een speciale zuurkoolpot en zuurkoolstamper te hebben, die gebruik(t)en ze in Oost Europa ook niet.

Kimchi
Kimchi is pittig!
Kimchi lijkt een beetje op zuurkool, maar is de Koreaanse versie. Het gerecht bestaat ook uit gefermenteerde kool en is vrij pittig; er wordt een vurige combinatie van uien, knoflook en hete pepers aan toegevoegd. Het gerecht bij uitstek dus, als je sinussen verstopt zijn. Wil je zelf kimchi maken, een tutorial vind je op Culy. Kimchi is ook verkrijgbaar in strooipoeder, voor wie liever voor het gemak gaat.

Kombucha
Kombucha moet wel met mate gedronken worden
Kombucha is gefermenteerde thee, die je tegenwoordig ook in sommige supermarkten kan vinden. De drank wordt al honderden jaren gebrouwd en bevat gisten, schimmels en lactobacilli. Kombucha bevat suiker, azijn, vitaminen B, antioxidanten, sporenelementen en een beetje alcohol als resultaat van het fermenteren. Ondanks de gezondheidsvoordelen en het feit dat de thee ontgift, moet je hem toch met mate drinken, omdat hij de lever kan belasten, de maag van streek kan maken en voor excessieve ophoping van zuren in het lichaam kan zorgen (metabole acidose). Overdrijf dus ook hier niet. Met een kopje thee in de ochtend bouw je prima aan gezonde darmflora. ‘Eetpaleo’ geeft tips hoe je kombucha zelf maakt. Zelf maken is beter, mits je de hygiëne- en bewaarvoorschriften nauwkeurig in acht neemt.

Yoghurt en kefir
Kefir heeft een lichtfrisse, mildzure smaak
Sommige yoghurt bevat probiotica, zoals de bekende Biogarde. Yoghurt kan vandaag in allerlei vormen komen: op soja basis, hennep basis, kokos basis en amandel basis. In welke van deze vormen dan ook, ze bevatten gezonde bacteriën. Je kunt zelfs je eigen zuivelvrije yoghurt thuismaken! Kefir komt van gefermenteerde dierenmelk en kan je ook thuis maken. Om zelf zuivelvrije yoghurt te maken kies je amandel-, haver-, kokos- of rijstmelk.

Olijven
Olijven bevatten probiotica? Wie had dat gedacht
Dat olijven probioticapotentie hebben, komt waarschijnlijk als een verrassing! Veel mensen weten dit niet. Maar ook de smakelijk hartige olijven bevatten probiotica, aangezien ze gefermenteerd en gepekeld zijn. Tijdens dit proces kunnen culturen zich vermenigvuldigen en daarom is het zoute snackje gezond voor je darmflora.

Zuurdeeg brood
Zuurdeegbrood verzadigt echt, maar bouwt ook je darmflora op
Een enorme makkelijke manier om meer probiotica binnen te krijgen via de maaltijd is door je oude vertrouwde tarwebrood om te ruilen voor zuurdesembrood. Het brood wordt via een fermentatieproces gemaakt, met een zuurdeegstarter. Het process duurt langer dan bij andere broden. Zuurdeeg brood verzadigt zeer goed en is een stuk compacter dan het meeste reguliere brood. Zelf zuurdesembrood maken is minder makkelijk en je moet hiervoor veel geduld hebben. Het kan de moeite waard zijn, omdat echt zuurdesembrood niet overal te vinden is. Wendy Walrabenstein legt uit hoe je zelf zuurdesembrood maakt.

Augurken
Augurken: de snack voor je darmbacteriën
Nog een makkelijke manier om meer probiotica aan je voeding toe te voegen is het gebruik van augurken! Doe ze lekker op je (zuurdeeg) boterham. Als komkommers lactofermentatie ondergaan, krijg je augurken. Snack de augurk lekker samen met de olijf. Vegatopia geeft tips om zelf augurken in te maken.

toevoeging EM-Vereniging:
EM-Actief
Een rijk superprobioticum: zelfgebrouwen, in de vorm van Microferm en begin volgend jaar in Nederland verkrijgbaar als goedgekeurd probioticum.

Bron (met veel afbeeldingen): http://goedgezond.info/2016/09/14/9-goede-bronnen-van-probiotica/

FOR THE FIRST TIME, GUT BACTERIA HAS BEEN SPOTTED EATING CHEMICALS IN THE BRAIN

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Scientists are finally starting to understand the gut and brain connection, and this understanding can lead to huge breakthroughs in regard to various mental disorders, and how what’s going on in the gut could actually be a culprit for many of these illnesses. Many are surprised to learn that an estimated 90% of the serotonin produced by the body actually comes from the gut! This may lead us to believe that proper nutrition, gut microbiome, and digestion might be a key component to a healthy mind.

 Recently, bacteria have been discovered in the gut that depends solely on one of the chemicals in our brains for survival. These bacteria consume a molecule known as GABA; this molecule is crucial for calming the brain. This shows directly how gut bacteria can affect our mood.

Philip Strandawitz and his colleagues from Northeastern University in Boston have recently discovered that a species of recently discovered gut bacteria, called KLE1738 could only be grown if it was provided with GABA molecules. While announcing his findings at the annual meeting of the American Society of Microbiology in Boston last month, Strandawitz said, “Nothing made is grown, except GABA.”

GABA acts by inhibiting signals from nerve cells, which calms down the activity of the brain. This is why it’s so surprising that a bacteria in the gut needs it in order to grow and reproduce. Interestingly enough, low levels of GABA are directly linked to depression and other mood disorders. The findings of this study just provide further evidence that the bacteria in our gut are directly affecting the function of our brains.

What Does This Mean For Treatment Of Depression?

An experiment performed in 2011 showed how a type of gut bacteria called Lactobacillus rhamnosus can actually alter the GABA activity in the brains of mice, as well as directly influencing how the mice are responding from stress. Researchers involved in this study found that this effect disappeared when they surgically removed the vagus nerve, linking the gut to the brain, in the mice. This suggests that it plays a role in the influence that gut bacteria have on the brain.

Now, Strandawitz is looking for other gut bacteria that consume, or alternatively produce GABA. This way he can test their effects on the brains and behavior of animals. This research may eventually lead to alternative treatments for various mood disorders including depression and anxiety.

Is It Really As Simple As Diet?

Perhaps. We can’t really say for sure, but having a healthy gut can relate to having a healthy mind. There are more and more instances being documented from people who have completely changed their diets, and the impact it has had on their mood, symptoms of depression and, believe it or not, on autism as well.

There are many different contributing factors leading to an imbalance of gut flora, which in turn can lead to various mental and physical issues. Overuse of antibiotics without taking probiotics can cause this, not being breastfed as a baby could lead to gut issues down the road, also, being born from a C-section can also cause issues later on, as the beneficial bacteria that would normally be passed to the baby during birth is bypassed. These factors and more can lead to many different ailments and allergies.

After all our guts go through, it is no surprise that many of us are struggling with so many health disorders and allergies, but having this awareness – that so much is dependent on an optimal functioning gut and digestive system – is the first step towards taking back our health!

I highly suggest the book, Medical Medium by Anthony William, where these topics are explored on a much deeper level.

Have you changed your life by changing your diet and bringing balance to your gut flora? Let us know your story!

Much Love

BRON: http://www.collective-evolution.com/2017/09/05/for-the-first-time-gut-bacteria-has-been-spotted-eating-chemicals-in-the-brain/

EM- Verenging: EM-Actief (zoals Microferm) wordt gebruikt als probiotica. Er zijn mensen die merken dat ze bij het drinken van EM-Actief minder tot geen negatieve hebben!

Your Gut Can Help Fight Depression and High Blood Pressure

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By Dr. Mercola

Trillions of bacteria live in your gut, influencing your body’s homeostasis daily. Far from being restricted to the confines of your intestinal tract, your gut microbiota is intricately tied to other body systems via a number of complex pathways, including the gut-brain axis and a recently revealed gut-brain-bone marrow axis, the latter of which may influence your blood pressure, mood and more.

It’s becoming increasingly clear that your brain, your immune system and your gut microbes are intricately linked, so it’s not a stretch to add bone marrow to the list of connections. Immune cells stem from bone marrow, and bone marrow inflammation, which may result from high blood pressure, is known to be caused by a signal from the brain. In a study published in the journal Frontiers in Physiology, researchers further revealed that immune cells in bone marrow play an important role in signaling between the brain and gut.1,2

Gut-Brain-Bone Marrow Connection Revealed

In an animal study, researchers replaced natural bone marrow in mice with bone marrow cells from genetically engineered (GE) mice. The marrow had been modified to be deficient in adrenergic receptor beta, making it less responsive to messages from the brain.

“In this way,” researchers wrote in The Conversation, “we could investigate how the host brain-immune communication will modify gut microbiota. Indeed, by studying this new mouse model, we determined that our nervous system — directed by our brain — can modify the composition of gut microbiota by communicating directly with the bone marrow immune cells. The brain, therefore, can change our gut microbiota indirectly by talking to the bone.”3

In short, when bone marrow was less able to communicate with the brain, a “muted inflammatory response” was observed in the gut, which in turn led to a more diverse (i.e., healthier) microbiome. The study shed light on one of the complex ways your gut health may be implicated in that of your heart and brain, with researchers noting:4

“In the context of cardiovascular disease, this muted inflammatory response appears to be beneficial, as it leads to beneficial lowering of blood pressure in our experimental mice.

Most interestingly, a link between gut microbiota and our mental health has recently become clearer. In particular, some have suggested that gut microbiota influence the stress and anxiety pathways in the brain in a way that can alter mood and behavior both positively and negatively, giving a whole new meaning to the term ‘gut feeling.'”

Imbalanced Gut Microbes Play a Role in High Blood Pressure

Imbalanced gut microbes, known as gut dysbiosis, have been previously linked to heart disease and high blood pressure, but a recent animal study shed further light on the unique connection.5 Researchers gave rats antibiotics for 10 days to wipe out their natural microbiota, then transplanted hypertensive microbiota into rats with normal blood pressure. Rats with high blood pressure, in turn, were transplanted with normal microbiota.6

The results were surprising in that the rats treated with hypertensive microbiota developed high blood pressure, while the transplantation of normal microbiota led to only a slight reduction in blood pressure among the hypertensive rats. “We conclude that gut dysbiosis can directly affect SBP [systolic blood pressure],” the researchers wrote, adding that manipulating gut microbiota, such as via the use of probiotics or eating fermented foods, may be an “innovative treatment for hypertension.”7

However, it’s not the first time such a link has been revealed. A systematic review and meta-analysis of nine randomized, controlled studies found significant benefits among people with high blood pressure who consumed probiotics in products like yogurt and milk.8 On average, compared to a placebo, the probiotic consumption lowered systolic blood pressure (the top number) by 3.56 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number) by 2.38 mm Hg.

It appeared that at least 100 billion colony-forming units of probiotics a day were necessary to trigger such improvements, and the benefit was only seen in those who consumed probiotics for eight weeks or more. In 2015, meanwhile, certain gut microbes, namely firmicutes and bacteroidetes, were associated with increased blood pressure in rats.

“Products of the fermentation of nutrients by gut microbiota can influence blood pressure by regulating expenditure of energy, intestinal metabolism of catecholamines, and gastrointestinal and renal ion transport, and thus, salt sensitivity,” according to research published in the journal Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension.9

Probiotics Found to Benefit Gut Diseases, Mental Health

The addition of beneficial microbes has been found to benefit people struggling with serious gut diseases, including necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), which often occurs in premature infants and can be fatal. An Australian study revealed that probiotic supplementation significantly reduced NEC risk and mortality in preterm neonates, lowering the incidence of NEC in premature babies by at least 30 percent.10

Probiotics have also been found to benefit irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), of which disturbances in the gut microbiota are often seen.11Compared to placebo, probiotic therapy was found to reduce pain and symptom severity among people with IBS,12 and probiotics are also known to prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children.13

On the mental front, a small study involving adults diagnosed with IBS and depression found the probiotic Bifidobacterium longum provided depression relief. At six weeks, 64 percent of the treatment group had reduced depression scores compared to 32 percent of the control group that received a placebo.14

Those receiving the probiotic also reported fewer symptoms of IBS and improved overall quality of life. At the end of 10 weeks, approximately twice as many in the treatment group were still reporting lower levels of depression.

Interestingly, functional MRI scans revealed a link between reductions in depression score and actual changes in brain activity, specifically in areas involved in mood regulation, such as the amygdala. As noted by Dr. Roger McIntyre, professor of psychiatry and pharmacology at the University of Toronto, who was not involved in the study:15

“We know that one part of the brain, the amygdala, tends to be red-hot in people with depression, and it seemed to cool down with this intervention. It provides more scientific believability that something in the brain, at a very biological level, seems to be affected by this probiotic.”

Are Personalized Probiotics the Answer?

As for which strains of probiotic are best, the answer may be harder to come by. Emma Allen-Vercoe, a microbiologist at the University of Guelph in Ontario, told Scientific American, “Bacterial strains are so genetically different from one another, and everybody has a different gut microbiota … There will probably never be a one-size-fits-all probiotic.”16

Studies suggest, for instance, that some people may benefit more from probiotics than others if they’re “low” in a certain variety that is then added to their diet. As Scientific American reported:17

“In other words, their gut ecosystems had a vacancy that the probiotic filled. That is exactly the kind of insight that clinicians need to create and recommend more effective probiotics. If a doctor knows that an individual with severe diarrhea has an undersized population of a particular beneficial microbe, for example, then prescribing the missing strain should increase the chance of a successful treatment.”

Other research has looked into the benefits of certain strains of bacteria, such as Bifidobacteria, which tend to be abundant in babies’ intestines but typically make up less than 10 percent of the gut microbiome bacteria in adults.18 Low levels of Bifidobacteria, in turn, are linked to chronic diseases like celiac disease, diabetes, allergic asthma and even obesity, while supplementing with them has been found to benefit IBS, inflammatory bowel disease, chronic fatigue syndrome, psoriasis, depression and more.19

Another type of bacteria, lactobacillus, has been shown to reduce anxiety in animal studies,20 while taking a probiotic with eight different bacterial strains reduced aggressive and ruminative thoughts in a study of adult volunteers.21,22

The Lectin Connection and How Leaky Gut Can Destroy Your Health

It’s important to be aware that gut dysbiosis, also known as leaky gut, is not only a major gut disrupter linked to digestive disorders, but may also contribute to other chronic diseases like Alzheimer’s and possibly cancer. If your gut is leaky, your blood-brain barrier is also leaky, which means toxins can go right into your brain, affecting your cognitive and mental health.

Further, leaky gut can be triggered by a number of factors, including imbalanced gut microbiota that result from dietary factors, such as the consumption of sugar as well as lectins. This latter component is very important. Lectins are plant proteins, sometimes called sticky proteins or glycan-binding proteins, because they seek out and bind to certain sugar molecules on the surface of cells. There are many types of lectins, and the main difference between them is the type of sugar each prefers and binds to.

Some — including wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), found in wheat and other grass-family seeds — bind to specific receptor sites on your intestinal mucosal cells and interfere with the absorption of nutrients across your intestinal wall.

As such, they act as “antinutrients,” and can have a detrimental effect on your gut microbiome by shifting the balance of your bacterial flora — a common precursor to leaky gut. Dr. Steven Gundry, author of “The Plant Paradox: The Hidden Dangers in ‘Healthy’ Foods That Cause Disease and Weight Gain,” makes a strong case for a lectin-free diet, stating:

“Our microbiome is, I think, our early warning system, because about 99 percent of all the genes that make up [the human body] are actually nonhuman, they’re bacterial, viral and fungal … [from which] we’ve uploaded most of the information about interacting with our environment … because the microbiome is capable of almost instantaneous changing and information processing that we actually don’t have the ability to do.

We’re beginning to realize … that the microbiome is not only how we interact with plant materials … like lectins, but probably more importantly, our microbiome teaches our immune system whether a particular plant compound is a friend or foe [based on] how long we’ve known that plant compound. There are lectins in everything.

But the longer we’ve interacted with lectins and the longer our microbiome has interacted with them, the more our microbiome kind of tells our immune system, ‘Hey, guys, it’s cool. We’ve known these guys for 40 million years. Chill out. They’re a pain, but we can handle them.’

From an evolutionary perspective, if you look at modern foods — say the grains and the beans, which we started interacting with 10,000 years ago, which is a blink of time — our microbiome [regards them as] foreign substances … [T]here’s no lectin speed dating in evolution.”

Lectins are strongly associated with autoimmune disorders of all kinds, primarily by triggering leaky gut. They’re found in many of our most cherished foods, such as:

Potatoes Eggplants Tomatoes Peppers Goji berries Lima beans
Cashews Peanuts Sunflower seeds Chia seeds Pumpkin seeds Kidney beans
Squash Corn Quinoa Soybeans Wheat Lentils

In addition, according to Gundry, glyphosate, which is not only sprayed on GE crops via Roundup but also is used to desiccate wheat in the U.S., is also highly problematic, decimating your microbiome and increasing leaky gut. It’s yet another reason to eat organic as much as possible.

To learn more, I highly recommend picking up a copy of “The Plant Paradox,” especially if you’ve already cleaned up your diet and still struggle with excess weight and/or health problems. Certainly, anyone with an autoimmune disorder would also be wise to take a closer look at lectins.

How to Support a Healthy Microbiota

Supporting your microbiome isn’t very complicated, but you do need to take proactive steps to encourage its health while avoiding factors known to cause harm. In addition to the lectin information above, consider the following recommendations to optimize your microbiome:

Do Avoid
Eat plenty of fermented foods. Healthy choices include lassi, fermented grass fed kefir, natto (fermented soy) and fermented vegetables. Antibiotics, unless absolutely necessary, and when you do, make sure to reseed your gut with fermented foods and/or a high-quality probiotic supplement.
Take a probiotic supplement. Although I’m not a major proponent of taking many supplements (as I believe the majority of your nutrients need to come from food), probiotics are an exception if you don’t eat fermented foods on a regular basis Conventionally-raised meats and other animal products, as CAFO animals are routinely fed low-dose antibiotics plus GE grains loaded with glyphosate, which is widely known to kill many bacteria.
Boost your soluble and insoluble fiber intake, focusing on vegetables, nuts and seeds, including sprouted seeds. Chlorinated and/or fluoridated water. Especially in your bathing such as showers, which are worse than drinking it.
Get your hands dirty in the garden. Exposure to bacteria and viruses can help to strengthen your immune system and provide long-lasting immunity against disease.

Getting your hands dirty in the garden can help reacquaint your immune system with beneficial microorganisms on the plants and in the soil.

Processed foods. Excessive sugars, along with otherwise “dead” nutrients, feed pathogenic bacteria.

Food emulsifiers such as polysorbate 80, lecithin, carrageenan, polyglycerols and xanthan gum also appear to have an adverse effect on your gut flora.

Unless 100 percent organic, they may also contain GMOs that tend to be heavily contaminated with pesticides such as glyphosate. Artificial sweeteners have also been found to alter gut bacteria in adverse ways.23

Open your windows. For the vast majority of human history, the outside was always part of the inside, and at no moment during our day were we ever really separated from nature.

Today, we spend 90 percent of our lives indoors. And, although keeping the outside out does have its advantages it has also changed the microbiome of your home.

Research shows that opening a window and increasing natural airflow can improve the diversity and health of the microbes in your home, which in turn benefit you.24

Agricultural chemicals, glyphosate (Roundup) in particular is a known antibiotic and will actively kill many of your beneficial gut microbes if you eat foods contaminated with it.
Wash your dishes by hand instead of in the dishwasher. Research has shown that washing your dishes by hand leaves more bacteria on the dishes than dishwashers do, and eating off these less-than-sterile dishes may actually decrease your risk of allergies by stimulating your immune system. Antibacterial soap, as it too kills off both good and bad bacteria and contributes to the development of antibiotic resistance.

Bron:  http://wakingtimesmedia.com/gut-can-help-fight-depression-high-blood-pressure/

Small study shows probiotics can beat back depression

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In March of this year, researchers showed that a probiotic found in yogurt was able to reverse symptoms of anxiety and depression in mice. Now, in a small study involving 44 adults, investigators at McMaster University in Canada have shown a different probiotic can have the same effect in humans.

Increasingly, scientists are exploring the link between our guts and our brains, and finding that the two are very much linked. Earlier this year, researchers found that they could alter the gut microbiota by beaming people’s’ brains with magnetism, and last year, a study indicated that certain molecules in the gut can inhibit inflammation it the brain.

The McMaster research focussed on individuals with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) which, the university says, is the most common gastrointestinal disorder in the world. The study split 44 adults into two groups. One group took the probiotic Bifidobacterium longum every day for ten weeks, while the other group took a placebo.

At six weeks, in the group taking the probiotic, 14 out of 22 participants (64 percent) had a lower depression score than the group taking the placebo. What’s more, the researchers saw changes in brain areas associated with depression in the probiotic group when they observed them using functional MRI (fMRI) scans.

“The fMRI study showed decreased activity in the amygdala and other fronto–limbic regions of the brain, which are known to be involved in the control of mood, in the patients taking with probiotics compared to those taking placebo,” Premysl Bercik told us. Bercik is an associate professor of medicine at McMaster and senior author on the study.

Of course, one theory is that the symptoms of depression went away in the study subjects taking the probiotic because their IBS symptoms also improved. So we asked Bercik about that, and he said that the effects of the probiotic treatment on mood lasted longer than the effects on the IBS symptoms – longer than the treatment was carried out, in fact.

“You are right,” he told us, “the patients on probiotics also reported improvement in their IBS symptoms (adequate relief of symptoms) at the end of the probiotic treatment, but not four weeks later when the beneficial effect on depression was still present. So one can argue that the primary effect of this probiotic is on depression. Also, the amygdala is one of the important centers in processing abdominal pain so if the probiotic altered the function of this brain region, it could also improve the gut symptoms of IBS (the pain is the hallmark symptom of IBS).”

The study, which was carried out in conjunction with scientists from food giant Nestlé, has been published in the journal Gastroenterology.

Source: McMaster University

BRON: http://newatlas.com/probiotics-fight-depression/49693/

Baanbrekend onderzoek onthult reden voor agressief en asociaal gedrag

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boze man - pixabay.com

(Nine for news) Canadese onderzoekers hebben een baanbrekende studie gepubliceerd waaruit blijkt dat lage doses penicilline kunnen resulteren in gedragsveranderingen.

Muizenbaby’s die tijdens de laatste week van de zwangerschap en de eerste weken na de geboorte penicilline kregen, vertoonden op latere leeftijd agressief gedrag en waren minder sociaal en minder angstig.

Toen de muizen de melkzuurbacterie Lactobacillus kregen, had het antibioticum geen invloed op hun gedrag.

Probiotica
Er zijn steeds meer zorgen over de langetermijneffecten van antibiotica, aldus hoofdonderzoeker John Bienenstock van de McMaster University.

“Uit ons onderzoek blijkt dat probiotica de nadelige effecten van penicilline kunnen voorkomen,” zei hij.

Andere studies hebben al aangetoond dat antibiotica het gedrag van dieren kunnen beïnvloeden.

Vrijwel geen
“Er zijn vrijwel geen baby’s in Noord-Amerika die in hun eerste levensjaar nog geen antibioticakuur hebben gehad,” zei dr. Bienenstock.

“Antibiotica worden niet alleen voorgeschreven, maar ook gevonden in vlees en zuivelproducten,” vervolgde hij.

Als moeders de effecten van deze medicijnen overdragen op hun kinderen, kunnen we ons afvragen wat de langetermijneffecten van de consumptie van antibiotica zijn, aldus Bienenstock.

Obesitas
Na een studie uit 2014 werden er ook al zorgen geuit over het gebruik van antibiotica toen bleek dat muizen die penicilline kregen vatbaarder waren voor obesitas.

Het onderzoeksteam gaat nu kijken wat de effecten zijn als enkel de zwangere muizen penicilline krijgen toegediend.

De onderzoekers gaan ook bestuderen welke bacteriën de muizenbaby’s kunnen beschermen tegen gedragsveranderingen als gevolg van antibioticagebruik.

Het onderzoek is gepubliceerd in het tijdschrift Nature Communications.
Bron: EarthmattersNine for NewsNewswise

 

Healthier gut bacteria and weight loss achieved through magnetic brain stimulation

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For several years now, researchers have been building on a series of studies that have displayed links between non-invasive, deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (dTMS) and reduced food cravings. Now, for the first time, research has shown that dTMS can fundamentally alter the composition of gut microbiota, resulting in both weight loss and general improvements in other metabolic and hormonal factors.

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation has shown promise in recent years for a variety of applications, from boosting memory function to treating migraines. The technique involves firing magnetic pulses into particular regions of the brain to alter the activity of certain neurons. The process is currently approved for use in the United States to treat major depression.

Following on from studies that showed how an imbalance in gut bacteria altered the brain signals for appetite, a team at the IRCCS Policlinico San Donato and University of Milan set out to examine how dTMS could effect the composition of a subject’s gut microbiota.

The study involved 14 subjects split into two groups. One group received 15 dTMS sessions over five weeks, targeting the insula and prefrontal cortex, while the other group was the control, receiving a sham simulation.

As well as analyzing the subjects’ gut microbiota through stool samples both before and after the trial, the team measured blood levels of insulin, pituitary gland hormones, glucose and a neurotransmitter called norepinephrine, which is known to affect microbiota composition.

The research team noted significant differences between the dTMS subjects and the control group after five weeks, with the dTMS subjects losing more than three percent of their total body weight and more than four percent of their fat.

Most interestingly, the stool samples showed that the dTMS subjects had greatly altered gut microbiota composition, including higher levels of several beneficial bacteria associated with anti-inflammatory properties and a general improvement in certain hormonal parameters. The control group receiving the sham stimulations were noted as having no clinically relevant changes in any of these areas.

“These changes suggest a beneficial effect of dTMS on both weight loss and change in microbiota composition,” says Professor Livio Luzi, head of the research. “Our research shows the innovative ability of dTMS in exerting anti-obesity effects through alteration of the gut-brain axis.”

The “gut-brain axis” is hot area of research at the moment, with scientists discovering the degree of interaction between brain function and gut bacteria to be significantly more complex and comprehensive than previously known. This is the first time researchers have shown that the gut microbiota can be altered through magnetic brain stimulation and it paves the way for fascinating new therapeutic interventions to battle obesity in the future.

The research will be presented on Sunday April 9th at ENDO 2017, the Endocrine Society’s 99th annual meeting.

Source: The Endocrine Society

Onze bron: http://newatlas.com/magnetic-brain-stimulation-alters-gut-bacteria/48755/