This bacteria literally poops gold

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According to a recently published study from researchers in Australia and Germany, a rare bacteria can turn trace amounts of toxic metals into gold nuggets, effectively clumping together and pooping out tiny gold nuggets a few nanometers in size as a byproduct. You can see a picture of one here (or beneath).

photocredit: http://pressemitteilungen.pr.uni-halle.de/bilder/pic_20180126115149_010396ca8a.jpg

What  C. metallidurans does is take trace elements of gold found in soil and put them together. It basically does this as a survival mechanism as it exists in soil with high heavy toxic metal (such as gold and copper) content. When both copper and gold elements enter the bacteria, the little guy activates an enzyme called CopA which turns the  elements back into their slightly larger and harder to digest forms. So, the “pooping” — if you will — is more-so reassembling the trace amounts into tiny nuggets, but quite frankly it ain’t often that a scientific study births a headline as wonderful as “This bacteria poops gold.”

Professor Dietrich H. Nies, a microbiologist at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg and Professor Frank Reith from the University of Adelaide have been working on this since 2009, but only recently were able to publish their findings.

Perhaps the most interesting part of the study is that this research plays an important part in cracking the bio-geochemical gold production cycle. Effectively, it’s entirely possible that gold could be produced or farmed from ores without the use of mercury. Behold this nugget (you’re welcome!) from the Halle-Wittenberg press release:

Here, primary gold metal is transformed by other bacteria into mobile, toxic gold compounds, which is transformed back into secondary metallic gold in the second half of the cycle.  Once the entire cycle is understood, gold can also be produced from ores containing only a small percentage of gold without requiring toxic mercury bonds as was previously the case.

Just a couple of years ago, a newly discovered plastic-eating bacteria brought hope to those looking to solve the plastic waste problem in our oceans. So between gold poop and the ability to destroy plastic, perhaps we should welcome more bacteria into our lives.

BRON: http://bigthink.com/news/this-bacteria-literally-poops-gold

Elke bacterie lijkt een eigen persoonlijkheid te hebben

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En dat niet alleen: bacteriën hebben ook ‘stemmingswisselingen’.

Dat schrijven Nederlandse onderzoekers in het blad eLife. Ze baseren zich op experimenten met de bekende bacterie E. coli.

Eiwitmoleculen
Bacteriën zijn eencellig en hebben dus geen zenuwstelsel. Maar ze kunnen dankzij een netwerk van eiwitmoleculen – die met elkaar samenwerken op een manier die sterk lijkt op hoe zenuwen in ons brein functioneren – wel hun bewegingen beheersen. “Zo ‘weet’ E. coli – een onschadelijke darmbacterie – wanneer hij zijn rechtdoorgaande zwemrichting moet veranderen door af en toe te tuimelen, waardoor hij in een nieuwe, willekeurige richting verder zwemt,” legt onderzoeker Tom Shimizu uit. “E. coli gebruikt signaaleiwitten om voedselmoleculen of giftige stoffen te detecteren. Daarmee beslist de bacterie al zwemmend of zijn leven beter of slechter wordt, en hoe vaak hij moet tuimelen om op een goede plek terecht te komen.”

Microscopiemethode
Al jaren onderzoeken wetenschappers hoe deze moleculaire netwerken in bacteriën reageren op veranderingen in de omgeving (zoals bijvoorbeeld een plotselinge overvloed aan voedsel). Maar daarbij was het tot voor kort niet mogelijk om te achterhalen hoe het eiwitnetwerk in elke individuele bacterie reageert. In plaats daarvan moest het signaal gemiddeld worden over honderden bacteriën. Shimizu en collega’s hebben nu echter een microscopiemethode ontwikkeld waarmee ze de reactie van moleculaire netwerken wél in individuele bacteriën kunnen vaststellen. En dat levert verrassende resultaten op.

Een eigen persoonlijkheid
De onderzoekers werkten met bacteriën die – net als eeneiige tweelingen – exact hetzelfde DNA hadden en onder dezelfde omstandigheden gekweekt waren. Je zou op basis daarvan misschien dan ook wel verwachten dat het netwerk van eiwitmoleculen zich in elke bacterie hetzelfde gedraagt. Maar niets is minder waar. In elke bacterie gedroeg het eiwitnetwerk – zelfs als de chemische omgeving gelijk was – zich weer anders. “Elke bacterie lijkt een eigen persoonlijkheid te hebben,” vertelt onderzoeker Johannes Keegstra. “We vonden bijvoorbeeld dat de chemische drempelconcentratie waarop ze reageren, aanzienlijk verschilt tussen bacteriën.”
“WE WAREN VERRAST DOOR HOE DRASTISCH DE STEMMINGSWISSELINGEN WAREN”

Stemmingswisselingen
Daarnaast blijkt uit het onderzoek dat de moleculaire activiteit in bacteriën ook aan verandering onderhevig is, zelfs als de omgeving niet verandert. De onderzoekers noemen dat stemmingswisselingen. Het betekent heel concreet dat het mechanisme waarop bacteriën hun ‘beslissing’ – om gewoon rechtdoor te blijven zwemmen of te gaan tuimelen en van richting te veranderen – baseren, dus behoorlijk onberekenbaar kan zijn. De wisselende moleculaire signalen zijn volgens de onderzoekers wellicht het resultaat van toevalsgebeurtenissen in de bacterie. Shimizu legt uit: “We denken dat de bacteriële individualiteit niet komt door nature (de DNA volgorde) of nurture (omgevingsinvloeden), maar veel meer door willekeurige gebeurtenissen zoals botsingen van moleculen binnenin de bacterie.”
Tegelijkertijd heeft de bacteriepopulatie mogelijk wel baat bij deze stemmingswisselingen, vertelt Keegstra. “We waren verrast door hoe drastisch de stemmingswisselingen waren,” vertelt Keegstra. “De aanzienlijke variatie in stemmingen zou kunnen betekenen dat sommige bacteriën zich gedragen als verkenners die afgelegen, grote gebieden onderzoeken met slechts soms een belangrijk resultaat, terwijl anderen dichtbij blijven en efficiënt gebruik maken van wat daar te vinden is. Zo’n verdeling van de arbeid kan gunstig zijn voor de hele populatie.”

Het onderzoek heeft verschillende implicaties. Zo kan meer inzicht in de verschillen die er tussen het gedrag van bacteriën zijn wellicht helpen om ziekteverwekkende bacteriën te bestrijden, zonder dat daarbij ook ‘goede’ bacteriën worden uitgeschakeld.

BRON: https://www.scientias.nl/bacterie-lijkt-eigen-persoonlijkheid/

Exercise can beneficially alter the composition of your gut microbiome

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Jacob Allen, left, Jeffrey Woods and their colleagues found that exercise alters the microbial composition of the gut in potentially beneficial ways (Credit: L. Brian Stauffer)

Two new studies led by researchers at the University of Illinois have delivered the first clear evidence that the composition of gut bacteria can be changed by exercise alone. Designed to isolate the effects of exercise from other factors that could influence gut bacteria, these dual studies build on an increasing body of evidence affirming the role of exercise in determining the makeup of a person’s gut microbiome.

The first study, focusing on a mouse model, took fecal samples from sedentary mice and exercised mice then transplanted that material into germ-free sedentary mice to analyze the effects of the different gut flora.

The results were significant, with the mice that received the exercised gut bacteria displaying an enhanced microbial diversity and a higher volume of butyrate-producing microbes. Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid (STFA) known to be vital to colon health, energy production and thought to protect against colon cancer.

“We found that the animals that received the exercised microbiota had an attenuated response to a colitis-inducing chemical,” says Jacob Allen, co-lead of the research. “There was a reduction in inflammation and an increase in the regenerative molecules that promote a faster recovery.”

The second study looked at humans and involved 18 lean and 14 sedentary obese subjects. All the subjects maintained their normal diets but were put on an exercise program consisting of up to an hour of cardiovascular activities, three times a week for six weeks. Each participant’s microbiome was sampled before and after the program.

The results of this study were fascinating with notable increases in fecal concentrations for STFAs seen in the lean subjects, but only modest increases seen in the obese subjects. Six weeks after the program was completed, these positive increases had declined following the participants return to a sedentary lifestyle.

“The bottom line is that there are clear differences in how the microbiome of somebody who is obese versus somebody who is lean responds to exercise,” says Jeffrey Woods, co-lead on the research. “We have more work to do to determine why that is.”

These two studies build on earlier work suggesting a strong correlation between exercise and diversity of healthy gut bacteria. This compelling new discovery, revealing that the effects of exercise could be dependent on obesity status, offers scientists a strangely unexpected new focus of study, and further affirms how mysteriously complex the gut microbiome seems to be.

The first mouse study was published in the journal Gut Microbes, while the second human study was published in the journal Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise.

Source: University of Illinois

Onze bron: https://newatlas.com/exercise-gut-bacteria-composition/52472/

Gezonde darmbacteriën beschermen tegen vrijwel elke ziekte -nieuwe studie

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Gezonde darmflora beschermen tegen bijna elke leeftijd gerelateerde ziekte. Als de balans tussen gezonde/ongezonde darmbacteriën zoek is, dan is dit een oorzaak voor chronische ontsteking. Dit betekent dan het startsein voor -ernstige- aandoeningen. Verandering in het voedingspatroon, pre- en probiotica, kunnen de ziekten voorkomen, blijkt uit Nederlands onderzoek.

Nederlandse onderzoekers transplanteerden de micro-organismen van oude muizen in jonge muizen, en de jonge muizen kregen hierop leeftijd gerelateerde chronische ontsteking.

Hoe darmbacteriën werken bij muizen lijkt op de manier waarop ze functioneren bij mensen. Alzheimer’s, beroertes en cardiovasculaire aandoeningen: veranderingen in het voedingspatroon kunnen deze ziekten voorkomen. Net als bijna alle andere leeftijd gerelateerde ziekten. Uit onderzoeken van de afgelopen jaren blijkt dat de darmen zo’n beetje het hart van alles zijn. Daarom wordt het ook ons tweede brein genoemd.

Het onderzoek werd uitgevoerd door University Medical Center Groningen.

Highlights uit de studie:

Als de samenstelling van de darmbacteriën uit balans is, kan er chronische ontsteking ontstaan. Dit gebeurde bij jonge muizen die het darm-microbioom van oude muizen getransplanteerd kregen. Leeftijd gerelateerde ontsteking wordt ook wel ‘inflammaging’ genoemd. Dit type ontsteking staat in verband met ernstige condities zoals dementie, beroerte en cardiovasculaire ziekten.

Probiotica en darmvriendelijke voeding beschermen tegen “inflammaging” en leeftijd gerelateerde ziekten.

Het is bekend dat oudere mensen een ander bacterieprofiel hebben dan jongere mensen. Het is het startsein voor ziekten.

Leeftijd gerelateerde ontsteking staat in verband met veranderingen die het immuunsysteem ondergaat naarmate men ouder wordt.

Het is niet duidelijk of het de leeftijd is die ontsteking veroorzaakt, of dat ontsteking veroudering veroorzaakt, maar de twee gaan hand in hand.

Voor het onderzoek werden monsters genomen van oudere muizen, van wie de samenstelling van het darm microbioom net als bij mensen verandert tijdens het ouder worden. Na de procedure ontwikkelde zich chronische ontsteking bij de muizen; dit zou normaal gesproken pas later in hun leven gebeuren. Het kwam alleen voor bij de muizen die een ander darm microbioom gekregen hadden.

Ook de oudere muizen kregen een transplantatie van darmbacteriën: namelijk het darm microbioom van de jonge muizen. Met een resultaat dat positief voor de oudere muizen was.

Het onderzoek suggereert dat veroudering tot een disbalans in de darmflora leidt, zodat er meer ‘slechte’ dan goede bacteriën in de darmen aanwezig zijn.

De overhand van de slechte bacteriën maken de darmwand meer doorlaatbaar (lekkende darm), zodat toxines de bloedbaan kunnen besmetten en aandoeningen kunnen veroorzaken zoals inflammatoire darmziekten, obesitas, angst, autisme, diabetes en zelfs kanker.

Er zou een causaal verband zijn tussen ‘oude’ darmbacteriën en inflammaging bij de muizen. Hetzelfde is (nog) niet bewezen bij mensen, maar de onderzoekers merken op dat een correlatie al geobserveerd is.

BRON: http://goedgezond.info/2017/11/03/gezonde-darmbacterien-beschermen-tegen-vrijwel-elke-ziekte-nieuwe-studie/

EM- Vereniging: EM-Actief (zoals Microferm) wordt gebruikt als (super)probiotica

#111 90% of Your Body is Microbes

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90% of Your Body is Microbes

A book titled, 10% Human by Alanna Collin, was translated into Japanese under the title 90% of your Body is Microbes and published by Kawade Shobo Shinsha at the end of August this year. In the book, the author writes:

You are just 10 per cent human. For every one of the cells that make up the vessel that you call your body, there are nine impostor cells hitching a ride. You are not just flesh and blood, muscle and bone, brain and skin, but also bacteria and fungi. You are more “them” than you are “you.” Your gut alone hosts 100 trillion of them, like a coral reef growing on the rugged seabed that is your intestine. Around 4,000 different species carve out their own little niches, nestled among folds that give your 1.5-metres-long colon the surface area of a double bed. Over your lifetime, you will play host to bugs the equivalent weight of five African elephants. Your skin is crawling with them. There are more on your fingertip than there are people in Britain…. Together, the microbes living on the human body contain 4.4 million genes – this is the microbiome: the collective genomes of the microbiota. These genes collaborate in running our bodies along-side our 21,000 human genes. By that count, you are just half a percent human.

Admittedly a long quote, but the point is that the human body is supported by an extraordinary ecosystem of microorganisms.

From the latter half of the 20th century to the present, autism, various allergies and intractable diseases have been occurring more frequently. Alanna Collin concludes that the healthy microbial ecosystem has been compromised because of daily use of
convenient chemical substances, including disinfection, antibiotics, etc.

This book gathers a lot of convincing evidence, and it summarizes this without leaving any room for objection. If one re-reads and understands the quoted part at the beginning, EM stakeholders will not say “No way” but rather find it eye opening, nodding their heads in agreement.

They say that the increase in incurable diseases is due to the damage done to microorganisms that exist like God, supporting all existence on Earth, but solutions to these are as follows:

1. Stop excessive use of chemically synthesized substances such as disinfectants and detergents due to an excessive concern for hygiene.

2. Stop the overuse of antibiotics, insecticides, and chemicals used in sterilization.

3. Ensure that the microbiome in the intestine becomes beneficial by taking enough vegetable fiber to serve as a substrate for good bacteria (food source).

4. If you still cannot solve the problem, transplant the stool of a person who has healthy microbiota.

We are firmly convinced that if these four points are put into practice the majority of diseases will be resolved.

Certainly it is true that triggers of diseases include various stresses, electromagnetic waves, radiation (including medical exposure), air pollution and water pollution, as well as problems related to modern agriculture that structurally requires fertilizers and agricultural chemicals, as well as unfair systems in an excessively competitive society, and even aspects of individual human personality.


“EMIKOSAN,” EM for human consumption in Germany

In the United States and Germany, drinkable EM is on the market. Although not widely promoted, the volume of sales has increased dramatically every year, and it is common knowledge that various health problems have been resolved through it use. Even in our country, there are many people maintaining optimal health by drinking EM of their own accord, using herbs and fruits and so on to make fermented beverages with EM.

There are some reports that in the case of epigenetic-caused dysfunctional genes, genetic defects were considerably corrected when drinking EM. In the accepted wisdom of traditional medicine this is considered impossible, and is seen to lie in the realm of the miraculous.

This book also introduces the fact that microorganisms function complementarily with genes that do not function sufficiently, and that microorganisms support various functions beyond the limits of human genes. For DNA (gene) absolutists, it is a theory that should not be tolerated, but it is already clear who the winner is.

Classical physicists dismiss out of hand my argument that microorganisms render electromagnetic waves harmless or eliminate radioactivity. However, the function of ultra super microorganisms, including the atomic transformation by microorganisms, etc., has become clear, something that goes far beyond the contents of this book.

“PRO EM-1,” EM for human consumption in the U.S.
Until now, when we used EM, treating it as almost divine, miraculous things have happened many times, but if you we ignore EM, or treat it as a mere servant to be used for your own selfish purposes, then you won’t have any good results. In principle, the resonance effect of the person using it and the EM sympathetically amplify energy, a common phenomenon also recognized in the world of “ki” and prayer.

Some books have begun to appear that attempt to use quantum mechanics to explain such diverse phenomena, and experimental results demonstrating the principle of homeopathy have also appeared. That is, vibrational energy is applied to water, substances and microorganisms are added to it, then it is gradually diluted, ultimately to a level where no such substance or microorganisms exist, however the wave properties remain, and these function in the reproduction of the substances and microorganisms.


EM-1 Bacteria cells

When it reaches this level, it can only be explained by the field of quantum mechanics, where anything goes. It is the position of quantum mechanics that before substances and life occur they are in a state where they can possibly become anything. The basic idea is that all things have both particle and wave properties at the same time and can become anything.

The methods of amplifying this quantum state (Superconductivity and the Meissner effect) are also utilized as the principle behind various ascetic disciplines, and when the enzymes that microorganisms have function, this creates a quantum state. From this point of view, atomic transformation by microorganisms is only natural, and it is correct to say that effective microorganisms such as EM are like an almighty God.

There are nearly countless kinds of enzymes, and the various phenomena occurring on Earth can either be heavenly or hellish, depending on the enzymes produced by microorganisms. In other words, enzymes produced by good bacteria and enzymes produced by the bad bacterium are in a struggle with each other.

If this book 90% of Your Body is Microbes is taken as the most important basis for understanding microorganisms and EM application is further developed from this perspective, the majority of diseases will disappear, and it goes without saying that safe, comfortable, low cost, high quality, virtuous cycle, sustainable solutions can be achieved in all fields, including the nation’s finances.

(October 13, 2016)

BRON: https://www.emrojapan.com/living/110

Your Microbes, Your Health: Products of Your Age, Lifestyle, and More

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Our bodies are home to trillions of microorganisms that play a critical role in digestion, the synthesis of vitamins, and our immune function. But, how much are we able to harness our microbiome to take control of our health?

In a previous post, we discussed how nature, nurture, and plain old chance can influence your microbiome. This week, we dive deeper into the science that suggests how these factors can impact your microbiome, and in turn, your overall wellness.

For starters, our station in the circle of life is revealing.

Upon birth, we are immediately exposed to outside elements. For instance, our delivery method (vaginal versus cesarean section) and whether we feed on breast milk or formula help to shape our emerging microbial fingerprint.

Studies suggest that the exposure — or lack thereof — to microorganisms in our early years could contribute to predispositions toward allergies and asthma, among other conditions. Certain babies are more at risk for these conditions when they possess low levels of common bacteria such as BifidobacteriumAkkermansia, and Faecalibacterium and a relatively increased presence of fungi (Candida and Rhodotorula).

At just three years of age, our microbiome stabilizes and roughly resembles the profile of an adult.

Illness and the use of antibiotics can temporarily alter your microbiome, often resulting in decreased diversity of microbial species. Antibiotics are modern miracles in fighting bacterial infections — but since they indiscriminately kill good bacteria along with bad bacteria, they can impact the fragile microbiome. Overuse of antibiotics, especially after repeated administration in a relatively short amount of time, has been associated with intestinal dysbiosis — an umbrella classification that can describe a range of symptoms such as gas, bloating, constipation, and diarrhea, among others.

The aftermath from these experiences can linger for years, but in time, your microbiome usually adjusts back to its baseline state.

As we reach old age, our microbiome decreases in diversity, making our immune system more vulnerable. Low microbial diversity has also been correlated with frailty. Studies show that the elderly experience lower levels of Bifidobacterium, which has anti-inflammatory properties that can help curb disease.

But age is only one variable that governs our microbial landscape.

Location, lifestyle, and genetics also impact your microbiome and wellbeing.

Where one lives — whether it be rural or metropolitan, industrialized or developing — shapes our microbial ecosystem. One study evaluated the gut microbiomes of rural Malawians, indigenous people of Venezuela, and U.S. city dwellers, and found that more pronounced differences existed among the group of U.S. urban residents as compared to the Malawians and natives of Venezuela.

Culture also impacts our microbiome and predisposition toward certain illnesses. For example, a Western diet — typically consisting of low fiber, high sugar, animal-based protein, and processed food — tends to give rise to a predominance of Bacteroides over Prevotella. This diet can be a risk factor for some chronic diseases, including irritable bowel disease (IBD).

Conversely, other communities with high plant fiber diets exhibit vastly different microbiome profiles than their Western counterparts. One such group, Tanzanian hunter-gatherers known as the Hazda, possess an abundance of Prevotella and nearly no Bifidobacterium, among other differences. Notably, autoimmune diseases are virtually nonexistent among these tribe members.

While no one particular healthy microbial profile exists, microbial diversity is known to promote wellness by protecting against foreign pathogens, increasing our natural line of defense. Research indicates that demographic variables including body mass index (BMI), race, and sex are significantly associated with microbial diversity.

Scientists are continuing to explore how social and environmental factors influence the microbiome. What’s more, researchers across multiple disciplines are investigating how these elements contribute to the unique health profiles — and needs — of various populations, whether they’re grouped by sex, age, race, geography, etc. uBiome has engaged in various research collaborations to help bridge this knowledge gap.

As our understanding deepens, we’ll all be more empowered to optimize our health, and our microbes.

BRON: http://www.ubiomeblog.com/microbes-health-products-age-lifestyle/